This manuscript is divided in three sections. The first and second sections address human vulnerability and structural damage due to explosions and fires, respectively. For explosions, overpressure, impulse and probit analysis are the parameters of interest; while for fires, thermal flux, thermal dose and probit analysis are the pertinent parameters. The third section addresses dispersions, and focuses only on human vulnerability due to toxicity. It is important to note that flammable dispersions are not addressed as they are inherently considered as part of the fires damage criteria (e.g., flash fires). Finally, for explosions, fires and toxic dispersions, generic available criteria in the related literature has been reviewed and compiled and internationally recognized sources of input data have been presented.
This paper compiles human vulnerability and structural damage criteria from well-known literature references for explosions, fires and dispersion analysis. In the first section, the manuscript addresses human vulnerability from explosions. Based on the contents described below, three parameters should be considered when evaluating human vulnerability due to overpressure: (1) overpressure, (2) impulse and (3) probit analysis. However, it is important to mention that dedicated criteria for human vulnerability based on the Department of Defense (DoD) is addressed in the following reference:  “Facility Siting Addressing Explosions Impacting Process Plant Permanent and Portable Buildings, Combining Exceedance Curves, Structural Response and Human Vulnerability Criteria,” After addressing human vulnerability the following section presents several well-known overpressure thresholds for domino effect and escalation analysis. It is important to note that even though the impulse has a potential effect on escalation triggered by explosions, it is normal to only use overpressure. Additionally, the following two references address the domino effect and escalation triggered by explosions phenomena, based on only thresholds and based on the Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) approach:  “Domino Effect and Escalation Triggered by Explosions – Combining Exceedance Curves and Overpressure Threshold Criteria;” and  “Domino Effect and Escalation Triggered by Explosions – Combining Exceedance Curves, Single Degree of Freedom and Pressure-Impulse Diagrams.”
Figure 02: Exposure and Damage Criteria to Vapor Cloud Explosion
Table 07: A Response of Structural Elements to the Different Levels of Overpressure
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