Risk-Based Approach – Domino Effect and Escalation Triggered by Fragments

Fragment projection following vessel burst scenarios is a potential cause of domino effect and escalation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI). This proposes a risk-based missile impact domino effect analysis based on current research and published literature. This approach is suitable for use in the quantitative risk-based assessment framework. 

Fragment projection is usually caused by internal explosions (physical explosions, confined explosions, BLEVEs, runaway reactions) resulting in the catastrophic failure of vessels that transfer of part of the explosion energy to the projected fragments. Fragments may be projected very far from the damaged vessel (up to more than 1 km). Internal explosions have the potential to trigger secondary accidents causing the loss of integrity of the target vessel. When a fragment hits a target vessel, it may perforate the vessel, embed itself into the vessel, or ricochet. Therefore, the target can be damaged either by penetration or by plastic collapse.

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