Vessels and pipes ﬁlled with ﬂuids require pressure relief in order to protect from loss of containment caused by ﬂuid thermal expansion. Thermal expansion of ﬂuids occurs when the ﬂuid is heated as a result of steam tracing, solar radiation, external ﬁre, etc.
In addition to establishing the required thermal relief requirements, it is also useful to establish the maximum pressure that can be reached during limited heating for either non-vented or partially vented ﬂuid ﬁlled systems. In order to obtain better estimates of the maximum pressure reached, the elasticity of the piping/vessel should be considered. For partially vented systems, the excess volumetric expansion (ﬂuid expansion - vessel/piping expansion) rate will govern the relief requirements.
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