A proactive approach, coupled with properly planned and implemented safety and risk management systems can help you comply with local, state and federal PSM regulations, as well as minimize loss of life, environmental impact, equipment damage, citations and litigation.
Our experts support every aspect to ensure that your facility runs safely and efficiently.
Integrating best practices with cost-effective solutions to address program deficiencies.
Helping manage risk with facility siting studies, assessments and recommendations.
Decades of experience leading incident investigations for process industry companies.
We prepare expert opinion reports and provide expert testimony for process incident cases.
Experienced engineers who have performed LOPAs on a wide range of facilities and terminals.
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If your facility uses, stores, manufactures, handles, or moves flammable or highly hazardous chemicals on site above the threshold quantity (TQ), OSHA does require PSM implementation. Learn the facts about process safety management.
The chemical company of a large integrated energy company was developing a corporate standard for LOPA, which incorporated a risk ranking matrix. The company was interested in obtaining an independent review of the design of the risk matrix, and in benchmarking the underlying risk tolerability criteria with generally accepted industry norms.
Companies have implemented their process safety management programs to comply with OSHA and EPA requirements, but they continue to have accidents. Process safety management programs can meet the letter of the law, but may not be effective in preventing accidents.
cGMP regulations protect people and animals from the adulteration of food and drugs that makes the product impure, unsafe, or unwholesome. This paper compares the key elements from the U.S. PSM requirements from 29 CFR 1910.119 with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q7 which is cGMP for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs).
Explosions can occur in vessels or enclosures containing flammable gases and/or dusts. Explosion venting, often referred to as deflagration venting (because we cannot practically vent detonations), is used to protect from catastrophic vessel/enclosure failure. Simplified equations are often used to determine the deflagration relief requirements. Simplified equations can be found in standards such as NFPA-68 . While easy to use, simplified equations tend to overestimate the relief requirements and have several practical limitations.
Simplified equations provided in NFPA-68  require the use of an explosion severity index, usually obtained from actual testing in a 20 liter sphere or a 1 m3 vessel. Published severity index data for flammable gases or dusts are also used. Typically, simplified equations for deflagration venting apply to ideal geometries and for short vent lines. They are not readily applicable to complex geometries, systems with elevated initial temperatures or pressures, hybrid systems containing flammable gases and dusts, systems with diluents and/or chemical oxidizers, systems with reduced venting set pressures, geometries with long L/D ratios or geometries with long vent piping where flame acceleration becomes significant.
We have developed detailed deflagration and explosion dynamics methods and computer codes that address many of the shortcomings of simplified sizing methods. These dynamic methods rely on a detailed representation of all possible independent combustion reaction(s) using direct Gibbs free energy minimization [2, 3, 4] coupled with a detailed burning rate model developed from measured explosion data using a 20 liter sphere or a 1 m3 vessel. We describe these methods in what follows and provide examples of how they are applied and how the burning rate models are developed from measured data.
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