Our White Papers

Download our white papers in PDF format and stay informed on managing and reducing episodic risk, maintaining compliance and preventing catastrophic incidents.

    OSHA published the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard in 1992. At that time it was viewed as one of the first performance-based regulations in the US. Previous OSHA regulations were viewed as prescriptive or specification based where all documentation and reporting requirements are included. What made the OSHA PSM standard performance-based was the expectation that each covered facility would need to develop a PSM program and would need to then implement the elements of that program.
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    QRA can be used for a number of different purposes. However, it is most valuable as part of a Risk Management program. Risk Management is the identification and control of hazards,
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    Process hazard analyses (PHAs) have been conducted on chemical processes for decades. Now PHAs are being conducted on combustible dust handling processes to meet several industry standards, such as NFPA 654 and 664. Although many of the same analysis techniques can be applied, conducting effective PHAs for combustible dust processes requires some differences in approach.
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    Operating companies covered by OSHA’s PSM standard or EPA’s RMP rule are required to revalidate their PHA every five years. Very frequently, PHA teams encounter frustrating challenges, including: Identification of a hazard introduced by a process change, identification of a hazard similar to a recent incident that was either overlooked in the previous PHA or deemed to have adequate protection, and inadequate documentation from the previous PHA.
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    The way a company manages a major crisis can literally spell the difference between life and death — both for the immediate victims of the crisis and for the company itself. Over the past two decades, several major crises have had severe environmental, health, and safety consequences, as well as drastic implications for the companies involved.
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    As part of the 2013 update, NFPA 654 provides clarification on how to determine if a flash fire or explosion hazard exists. As part of the facility and systems design section, it is now required that a hazard assessment be conducted to determine if dust flash fire and dust explosion hazards exist (NFPA 654 Section 6.1).
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    Fluid Curtains are an effective means of post-release mitigation, and are typically intended to dilute, disperse or neutralize toxic vapor cloud dispersions. This paper discusses the steps and requirements involved in designing a Fluid Curtain System, and the additional effort required to ensure it functions as an IPL.
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    Risk assessment is an effective means of identifying process safety risks and determining the most cost-effective means to reduce risk. Many organizations recognize the need for risk assessment, but most do not have the tools, experience and resources to assess risk quantitatively.
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    Chemical processing facilities need reliable emergency response plans and systems (ERPS) in order to manage technological risks to plant personnel, the surrounding communities, and the environment.
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    Fatigue failure of relief and/or process piping caused by vibration can develop due to the conversion of flow mechanical energy to noise. Factors that have led to an increasing incidence of noise vibration related fatigue failures in piping systems include but are not limited to
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    This paper describes a method for identification of major acute risks in existing process facilities that have potential for serious impacts to on-site and offsite populations, and for prioritization of mitigating measures.
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    This paper provides concise and structured documentation to be used as a guideline when conducting Hazard & Operability (HAZOP) studies. It collects and summarizes key tables, figures, and checklists placed in chronological order according to the sequential phases that define the HAZOP Management System (HMS). These strategic illustrations, as well as their layout provide the key ready-to-use tools able to maximize the effectiveness of a HAZOP study.
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    High viscosity two-phase flow occurs in many industrial scale reactors handling polymer systems. For example, a runaway reaction in a monomer tank can lead to high viscosity two phase flow.
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    Using a risk-based approach on processing systems, engineers can cost effectively meet required safeguards without compromising operating safety. Current design codes and standards primarily seek to mitigate catastrophic consequences from process incidents.
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    Although most companies that handle hazardous materials have implemented process safety management systems, they are still having accidents.
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