Our White Papers

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    Fragment projection following vessel burst scenarios is a potential cause of domino effect and escalation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI). This proposes a risk-based missile impact domino effect analysis based on current research and published literature.
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    The major concerns for anyone involved with risk assessment related to explosions is to estimate the explosion wave shape and the overpressure and impulse as a function of distance from the explosion.
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    This manuscript introduces the Single Degree Of Freedom (SDOF) approach for predicting the response of structures being impacted by an explosion. The concept of pressure-impulse diagrams is introduced and identified as a valuable tool to be used during the analysis of results generated during the development of a risk-based quantitative assessment.
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    This manuscript describes a risk-based approach with the aim to identify which occupied buildings in a process facility could be impacted by thermal radiation due to fires. This approach complies with API Recommended Practice 752 and 753 criteria and it consists of the following two steps: (1) risk-based quantitative assessment and (2) exceedance curve development. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis for risk reduction measures is evaluated. A case study is developed for illustrative purposes and the results confirm the following approach capabilities and characteristics: (a) a risk-based approach is considered the foundation for developing exceedance curves, (b) exceedance curves are a good engineering tool for identifying which occupied buildings comply or do not comply with given tolerability risk criteria; and (c) sensitivity analysis of outcomes associated with high risk levels impacting affected buildings is an effective and inexpensive approach for defining and comparing suitable and cost-effective risk reductions measures during the decision-making process.
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    A detailed risk-based approach is proposed for addressing flammable and toxic dispersions impacting occupied buildings. The approach is based on the results from a complete quantitative risk-based assessment, which provides the following information per each outcome impacting the target location under analysis:
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    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide tools, guidance and criteria for finding and appropriately using failure rate data needed to perform a risk-based quantitative analysis. as it is critical to understand of failure rates, their origin and limitations.
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    All phases during the development of a risk-based quantitative assessment are important. However, hazard identification is a key step; a discipline that “establishes the game rules” and can be considered as the foundation for risk management; i.e., if a hazardous scenario is ignored, it will not be evaluated, directly affecting risk estimation results for realistic decision-making.
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    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are a specific layer of protection that requires detailed knowledge and criteria for proper definition and installation based on functional safety principles and associated standard requirements.
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    The Process Safety and Loss Prevention field was born out of the need to avoid personnel injury, i.e., workforce and public, property damage, environmental impact and operation interruption (i.e., economic impact, due to several relevant accidents during the last fifty (50) years, e.g., Bhopal, Seveso, Buncefield, Flixborough, etc.).
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    The risk evaluation of a hazardous facility entails the calculation and quantification of the risk based on the Loss of Containment (LOC) scenarios identified in the Hazard Identification step as a function of the likelihood of occurrence (i.e., Frequency Analysis) and the associated impacts (i.e., Consequence Analysis).
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    This manuscript is intended to provide an overview of layers of protection capable of reducing the risk level of a given process facility, i.e., measures intended to prevent and/or mitigate the identified hazardous scenarios.
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    Risk-based quantitative assessment is accepted as a process safety management tool in many countries throughout the world. Risk-based legislation is implemented by national governmental bodies.
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    Safe design-design that effectively minimizes the likelihood of process accidents and mitigates their consequences-has long been a priority in the process industries. Today, process industry companies need to be certain that their stakeholders have confidence in how they manage the environmental, health and safety implications of industrial activities.
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    Expected retrograde and phase change conditions for relief and depressuring systems are illustrated and discussed using several case studies.
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    Proper characterization of reactive systems is required to ensure the mechanical integrity of processing equipment and to avoid potential hazards such as fires, explosions, and toxic cloud dispersions. As the temperature of the vessel contents deviates from safe operating limits and becomes too high, the rate of heat production by the chemical reaction (i.e., exponential function of temperature) can exceed the processing equipment rate of heat loss and/or cooling capacity (i.e., linear function of temperature) leading to a runaway reaction.
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