Our White Papers

Download our white papers in PDF format and stay informed on managing and reducing episodic risk, maintaining compliance and preventing catastrophic incidents.

    Proper characterization of reactive systems is required to ensure the mechanical integrity of processing equipment and to avoid potential hazards such as fires, explosions, and toxic cloud dispersions. As the temperature of the vessel contents deviates from safe operating limits and becomes too high, the rate of heat production by the chemical reaction (i.e., exponential function of temperature) can exceed the processing equipment rate of heat loss and/or cooling capacity (i.e., linear function of temperature) leading to a runaway reaction.
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    Security threats can come from internal or external adversaries. Internal threats include disgruntled employees and/or contractors, or employees forced into cooperation by threat of extortion or violence. External sources include criminals, extremists or terrorists.
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    This paper outlines one organization’s efforts on enhancement of their process safety management systems. In this case study the original process safety systems were established to support and drive risk management and compliance in response to American Chemical Council’s Responsible Care initiatives preceding U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA’s) process safety management (PSM) and Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Risk Management Plan (RMP).
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    The loss of High Pressure (HP) / Low Pressure (LP) interface has to be evaluated in order to (a) ensure that the downstream equipment can handle the energy and/or mass accumulation and (b) to also ensure that the upstream equipment can handle the rapid depressurization.
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    Facility siting has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years and is an important aspect of process safety for plant personnel and their contractors. In December 2009, API issued the Third Edition of the Recommended Practice 752, “Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Permanent Buildings,”
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    As we start a new year, we can take pride in our accomplishments for 2002. Unfortunately, we cannot linger too long because there are new challenges awaiting us in 2003.
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    Despite investment of considerable resources to conduct PHAs, many companies are still experiencing a high rate of incidents and find that the causes of these incidents have not been identified and/or addressed in their PHAs.
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    With the increased regulatory focus on pressure relief and flare systems (PRFS) design basis, many companies are in the process of updating their existing relief systems design documentation.
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    PRV stability, inlet pressure drop and built-up backpressure, should be evaluated at the rated capacity of the PRV. The rated capacity of the PRV corresponds to a specific overpressure, which is 10% of the set pressure or 3 psi, whichever is greater, for ASME VIII certified relief devices.
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    Vessels and pipes filled with fluids require pressure relief in order to protect from loss of containment caused by fluid thermal expansion. Thermal expansion of fluids occurs when the fluid is heated as a result of steam tracing, solar radiation, external fire, etc.
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    Potential hazards resulting from intentional or accidental spilling of large quantities of LNG include thermal radiation from vapor cloud fires (also referred to as flash fires) and pool fires.
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    The growing public concern over potential terror threats to LNG carriers and the expected increase in LNG shipping traffic led to several recent LNG safety studies.
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    According to the “Status Report on Combustible Dust National Emphasis Program,” published by OSHA in October 2009, the Hazard Communication (HazCom) standard is the most frequently-cited standard with respect to combustible dust-related hazards. This paper can help you determine what type of information you need to develop and include on your Safety Data Sheets (SDSs).
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    Most companies have completed at least three process safety management (PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs.
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