Our White Papers

Download our white papers in PDF format and stay informed on managing and reducing episodic risk, maintaining compliance and preventing catastrophic incidents.

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide tools, guidance and criteria for finding and appropriately using failure rate data needed to perform a risk-based quantitative analysis. as it is critical to understand of failure rates, their origin and limitations.
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    All phases during the development of a risk-based quantitative assessment are important. However, hazard identification is a key step; a discipline that “establishes the game rules” and can be considered as the foundation for risk management; i.e., if a hazardous scenario is ignored, it will not be evaluated, directly affecting risk estimation results for realistic decision-making.
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    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are a specific layer of protection that requires detailed knowledge and criteria for proper definition and installation based on functional safety principles and associated standard requirements.
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    The Process Safety and Loss Prevention field was born out of the need to avoid personnel injury, i.e., workforce and public, property damage, environmental impact and operation interruption (i.e., economic impact, due to several relevant accidents during the last fifty (50) years, e.g., Bhopal, Seveso, Buncefield, Flixborough, etc.).
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    The risk evaluation of a hazardous facility entails the calculation and quantification of the risk based on the Loss of Containment (LOC) scenarios identified in the Hazard Identification step as a function of the likelihood of occurrence (i.e., Frequency Analysis) and the associated impacts (i.e., Consequence Analysis).
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    This manuscript is intended to provide an overview of layers of protection capable of reducing the risk level of a given process facility, i.e., measures intended to prevent and/or mitigate the identified hazardous scenarios.
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    Risk-based quantitative assessment is accepted as a process safety management tool in many countries throughout the world. Risk-based legislation is implemented by national governmental bodies.
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    Safe design-design that effectively minimizes the likelihood of process accidents and mitigates their consequences-has long been a priority in the process industries. Today, process industry companies need to be certain that their stakeholders have confidence in how they manage the environmental, health and safety implications of industrial activities.
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    Proper characterization of reactive systems is required to ensure the mechanical integrity of processing equipment and to avoid potential hazards such as fires, explosions, and toxic cloud dispersions. As the temperature of the vessel contents deviates from safe operating limits and becomes too high, the rate of heat production by the chemical reaction (i.e., exponential function of temperature) can exceed the processing equipment rate of heat loss and/or cooling capacity (i.e., linear function of temperature) leading to a runaway reaction.
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    Security threats can come from internal or external adversaries. Internal threats include disgruntled employees and/or contractors, or employees forced into cooperation by threat of extortion or violence. External sources include criminals, extremists or terrorists.
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    The last few months have witnessed a high degree of focus on understanding and managing chemical reactivity to improve safety in process plants. These efforts have reinforced an important aspect of chemical reactivity, i.e. it is extremely complicated to try and list properties characterizing reactivity hazards. As an example, commercial explosives contain 2000 cal/g or more of energy
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    This paper outlines one organization’s efforts on enhancement of their process safety management systems. In this case study the original process safety systems were established to support and drive risk management and compliance in response to American Chemical Council’s Responsible Care initiatives preceding U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA’s) process safety management (PSM) and Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Risk Management Plan (RMP).
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    The loss of High Pressure (HP) / Low Pressure (LP) interface has to be evaluated in order to (a) ensure that the downstream equipment can handle the energy and/or mass accumulation and (b) to also ensure that the upstream equipment can handle the rapid depressurization.
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    Facility siting has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years and is an important aspect of process safety for plant personnel and their contractors. In December 2009, API issued the Third Edition of the Recommended Practice 752, “Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Permanent Buildings,”
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    As we start a new year, we can take pride in our accomplishments for 2002. Unfortunately, we cannot linger too long because there are new challenges awaiting us in 2003.
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