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    Due to the design vintage of many petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, existing pressure relief and flare systems may be overloaded because of prior unit expansions / upgrades have increased the load on the flare for combined flaring scenarios beyond the original design intentions.
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    In a typical LNG installation, a rapid depressurization can cause cryogenic temperatures in both upstream and downstream connected process equipment and piping. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as auto-refrigeration, can compromise the equipment’s mechanical integrity and pose a risk of material embrittlement. As vessel metal walls are exposed to temperatures below the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT), permanent damage is possible.
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    The main purpose of a FGS mapping study is to identify and assess the placement and performance of gas flammable, toxic and fire detectors.
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    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) vapor dispersion analysis is heavily influenced by the estimation of the source term: (a) the LNG (liquid) leak rate and duration, and (b) the pool spreading and vaporization. A sophisticated dispersion model will produce the wrong answer if the source term used is in error.
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    Risk management in the petrochemical industry includes a wide variety of activities, one of which is quantitative risk assessment. The quality of a quantitative risk assessment study is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the hazard identification stage – it is essential that all applicable hazards and potential hazard scenarios are considered.
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    The API and ASME guidelines and standards for emergency relief systems both state that total nonrecoverable inlet pressure losses between protected equipment and a spring-loaded relief valve should be limited to 3% of the relief valve set pressure.
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    There is a need to establish a systematic methodology for (a) identifying the buildings at risk, (b) assessing if the risk is tolerable, (c) and cost effective risk reduction where applicable to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).
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    QRA and ERS Analysis are both components of a successful Process Safety Management Program. While both studies often share the same information, they tend to remain separate, independent, studies. However, at facilities where relief valves can vent toxic and flammable materials directly to the atmosphere, these discharges can be a significant contributor to overall risk.
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    The development of accurate chemical interaction matrices can provide valuable information for the management of potential chemical reactivity hazards. SuperChems™ 1, a component of Process Safety Office® 2, provides intuitive and easy to use utilities for the rapid development of chemical interaction matrices. These utilities were developed based on known heuristics and rules for the interaction of certain chemical groupings.
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    The landscape of relief systems and general process safety management compliance is evolving. This evolution is due in part to enforcement or potential enforcement of RAGAGEP. Because of RAGAGEP [1, 2] considerations, oversizing a relief device is no longer acceptable or desirable from an engineering perspective and from a legal liability perspective.
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    Numerous scenarios can lead to retrograde and phase change (RPC) flow [1] in relief and de-pressuring systems. Potential hazard scenarios considered often include, but are not limited to, depressuring during process upsets (cold depressuring), relief or depressuring under fire exposure, and relief or depressuring under runaway reactions.
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    Risk-ranking is a common methodology for making risk-based decisions without conducting quantitative risk analysis. The basis for risk ranking is the risk matrix that has both a consequence and frequency axis. The product of consequence and frequency provides a measure of risk.
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    The main purpose of the Consequence Analysis phase to be developed during the execution of a risk-based quantitative assessment is to answer the following question: “Which are the impacts of identified hazardous scenarios?” This step is critical for estimating reliable and accurate effects / consequences from Loss of Containment scenarios (LOCs), avoiding unrealistic results that would directly impact on the decision-making process. Additionally, it is essential that Consequence Analysis includes the identification and quantification of ALL potential outcomes that a hazardous release may cause. Event Tree Analysis (ETA) methodology is a valuable tool for identifying all these potential outcomes. The present paper introduces the consequence analysis step by providing guidance on consequence modeling (i.e., source term characterization, dispersion of harmful gases/vapors, fires and explosions) and criteria for event trees development.
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    This manuscript is divided in three sections. The first and second sections address human vulnerability and structural damage due to explosions and fires, respectively. For explosions, overpressure, impulse and probit analysis are the parameters of interest; while for fires, thermal flux, thermal dose and probit analysis are the pertinent parameters.
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    This paper proposes a risk-based approach for identifying process equipment impacted by explosions with potential for escalation.
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