Our White Papers

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    This manuscript explains the fire phenomena and introduces the different types of industrial fires that should be identified and characterized during the development of a risk-based quantitative assessment; i.e., flash fires, pool fires, jet fires and fireballs.
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    Regarding vessels and tubes containing combustible gases or dusts, it is important to acquire knowledge on the conditions under which a fuel and oxidizer could undergo explosive reactions. These conditions are strongly dependent on the pressure and temperature.
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    An effective management of change (MOC) process simply prevents accidents. In fact, several process industry incident investigations have identified a weakness in the MOC process as the root cause, including two case histories published in a 2001 safety bulletin issued by the United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).
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    SuperChems™ v8.49 introduces better tools for managing chemicals and chemicals databanks. These new tools enable the user to quickly select new databanks and/or create project specific databanks that can be included with the project file for complete portability. These new tools automatically update the chemicals mixtures and warn the user if there are potential mismatches or missing chemicals with databank selection. Databanks are no longer required when sharing project files that have embedded project specific databanks.
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    Some parts of the US media have managed to dramatize key issues surrounding LNG transportation, facility operations, and proposed new projects. Erroneous media speculation and sensationalism, especially regarding the threat of terrorism, have created an atmosphere of anti-LNG sentiment fueled by fear and paranoia.
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    Due to the design vintage of many petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, existing pressure relief and flare systems may be overloaded because of prior unit expansions / upgrades have increased the load on the flare for combined flaring scenarios beyond the original design intentions.
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    In a typical LNG installation, a rapid depressurization can cause cryogenic temperatures in both upstream and downstream connected process equipment and piping. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as auto-refrigeration, can compromise the equipment’s mechanical integrity and pose a risk of material embrittlement. As vessel metal walls are exposed to temperatures below the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT), permanent damage is possible.
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    The present paper focuses on the results from several PSM audits performed between 2010 and 2016, at several different Chemical Process Industry (CPI) facilities. On the one hand, we have evaluated how well these facilities complied with the requirements of the OSHA PSM Standard. On the other hand, the data from the audit findings has been compiled and statistically processed in order to compare the main common findings with the results of those analyzed by OSHA’s Refinery and Chemical National Emphasis Programs (NEP) in 2012.
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    The main purpose of a FGS mapping study is to identify and assess the placement and performance of gas flammable, toxic and fire detectors.
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    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) vapor dispersion analysis is heavily influenced by the estimation of the source term: (a) the LNG (liquid) leak rate and duration, and (b) the pool spreading and vaporization. A sophisticated dispersion model will produce the wrong answer if the source term used is in error.
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    Risk management in the petrochemical industry includes a wide variety of activities, one of which is quantitative risk assessment. The quality of a quantitative risk assessment study is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the hazard identification stage – it is essential that all applicable hazards and potential hazard scenarios are considered.
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    This paper examines an overpressure relief protection for pipeline, specifically designed for hydrogen peroxide transport over an extended distance. Presented as a case study, it includes a series of sensitivity analyses, accounting for all credible overpressure scenarios, to obtain an optimal placement of relief devices along the pipeline.
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    When not properly evaluated and controlled, changes to physical equipment in a facility can lead to serious incidents with potentially severe consequences. Management of Change (MOC) systems, replete with a variety of electronic systems, flow charts, and checklists, have been developed by a number of reliable organizations throughout the world to manage these physical changes.
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    The API and ASME guidelines and standards for emergency relief systems both state that total nonrecoverable inlet pressure losses between protected equipment and a spring-loaded relief valve should be limited to 3% of the relief valve set pressure.
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    Loss of containment scenarios caused by catastrophic vessel and piping failures can lead to severe consequences including fire, explosion, blast wave damage, or a toxic cloud moving across the property and into the surroundings.
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