Our multifaceted approach takes into consideration the needs of regulators, engineering contractors and most importantly, you. LNG terminals, send-out facilities and associated pipelines, and power plants around the world rely on our extensive experience to complete QRAs, HAZOP and hazard identification studies, safety integrity level (SIL) reviews, and consequence analysis modeling.
Companies have implemented their process safety management programs to comply with OSHA and EPA requirements, but they continue to have accidents. Process safety management programs can meet the letter of the law, but may not be effective in preventing accidents. Traditional audit programs look at documentation and procedures, but do little to evaluate the program quality or effectiveness.
An international consumer products manufacturer suffered a significant business interruption due to failure of a critical support facility. This incident raised the question of whether there were other critical support facilities that could cause a similar interruption in production or a significant safety or environmental impact.
The California Energy Commission had been directed to assist in the development of clean alternate transportation fuels. As part of this effort they are supporting the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen fuel. In order to be used extensively in the transportation sector, the safety of hydrogen production, storage, and supply needs to be addressed.
In a typical LNG installation, a rapid depressurization can cause cryogenic temperatures in both upstream and downstream connected process equipment and piping. This phenomenon, sometimes referred to as auto-refrigeration, can compromise the equipment’s mechanical integrity and pose a risk of material embrittlement. As vessel metal walls are exposed to temperatures below the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT), permanent damage is possible. The potential for brittle failure is even more pronounced for a non-fire scenario. The level of severity depends on the initial pressure, initial temperature, content inventory, depressurizing rate, fluid composition, surrounding conditions, and heat transfer mechanisms.
Emergency depressurizing valves must therefore be sized to ensure a reasonable compromise between the impact of pressure and temperature. This paper examines the effects of different liquid levels, depressurizing valve sizes, vessel wall thicknesses, thermal insulations, and fluid compositions. The primary objective is to identify and illustrate the key factors that influence the mechanical integrity of a typical LNG installation, particularly at the mid to lower end of methane fluid compositions, and their impacts on carbon steel.
Dec 2, 2019
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Sep 10, 2019