Our multifaceted approach takes into consideration the needs of regulators, engineering contractors and most importantly, you. LNG terminals, send-out facilities and associated pipelines, and power plants around the world rely on our extensive experience to complete QRAs, HAZOP and hazard identification studies, safety integrity level (SIL) reviews, and consequence analysis modeling.
Companies have implemented their process safety management programs to comply with OSHA and EPA requirements, but they continue to have accidents. Process safety management programs can meet the letter of the law, but may not be effective in preventing accidents. Traditional audit programs look at documentation and procedures, but do little to evaluate the program quality or effectiveness.
An international consumer products manufacturer suffered a significant business interruption due to failure of a critical support facility. This incident raised the question of whether there were other critical support facilities that could cause a similar interruption in production or a significant safety or environmental impact.
The California Energy Commission had been directed to assist in the development of clean alternate transportation fuels. As part of this effort they are supporting the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen fuel. In order to be used extensively in the transportation sector, the safety of hydrogen production, storage, and supply needs to be addressed.
Although non-equilibrium flow and rapid phase transitions (RPT) are well researched, the literature published so far does not explicitly quantify the RPT phenomenon or provide reliable methods for the calculation of non-equilibrium flow for mixtures. Download this paper for a clear understanding of how non-equilibrium flow and rapid phase transitions develop and how they should be quantified for pure components and mixtures alike.
Potential hazards resulting from intentional or accidental spilling of large quantities of LNG include thermal radiation from vapor cloud fires (also referred to as flash fires) and pool fires. There is general agreement among LNG experts regarding the following aspects of potential LNG fire and explosion hazards:
1) Vapors from large, un-ignited spills of LNG cannot travel far into developed areas without finding an ignition source, igniting, and burning back to the source.
2) Once delayed ignition of the vapor cloud occurs, and provided that the cloud is unconfined and rich in methane, the LNG vapors will burn in the form of a vapor cloud fire.
3) A vapor cloud traversing over commercial and/or residential terrain will almost certainly encounter an ignition source early in its downwind drift and the resulting vapor cloud fire will burn back to the source.
4) The vapor cloud fire will burn back to the source and cause a pool fire at the source if the release is a continuous release and the release duration is longer than the time it takes the cloud to find an ignition source.
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